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FOP 2020, 5(2): 99-108 Back to browse issues page
Effects of topping and foliar application of gibberellic acid on some growth and flowering chracteristics of African marigold
Ali Salehi sardoei , Mojghan Shahdadneghad, Mohmmad Ali Bahmanyar
University of Gorgan
Abstract:   (459 Views)
One of the characteristics of ornamental foliage plants is the production of enough leaves and lateral branches to create a dense appearance. In some cases, it is necessary to treat some non-growing branches with some growth regulators to produce enough leaves and lateral shoots. The most common treatments are topping the branch and gibberellic acid application to produce more foliage on the plant. This research was conducted to study the influence of topping and application of gibberellic acid on vegetative and reproductive growth of African marigold as a bedding plant. In this study, topping as the first factor at three levels (0, 45, and 90 days before transplanting) and gibberellic acid as the second factor at four levels (0, 100, 200, and 300 mg L-1) were applied in a pot experiment outdoor under a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design, 4 replications in each treatment (4 pots in each replication). The seeds were planted in late summer. Then, approximately 7 cm long seedlings with six leaflets were transferred to pots. Plants were treated with gibberellic acid and topping 15 to 20 days after transplanting. Foliar spraying was carried out at three stages with 10 days’ intervals. Distilled water was sprayed on control plants. Results showed that using of gibberellic acid combined with a topping treatment increased the amount of chlorophyll index, plant height, length, and lateral roots volume. The number of opened flowers, bud and stem diameter had the highest performance at 120 days after spraying with 100 mg L-1 gibberellic acid. Therefore, topping combined with gibberellic acid at the concentration of 100 mg L-1 increased flowering and most other characteristics studied.
Keywords: Chlorophyll, Gibberellic acid, Opened flowers, Topping, Transplant
Full-Text [PDF 282 kb]   (111 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/05/24 | Accepted: 2021/04/8 | Published: 2021/11/9
References
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2. Bani Nasab B, Rahami M (1998). The effect of the use of gibberellic acid on the growth and development of coriander seeds and Kalkhong. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 29 (1): 65-74.
3. Bhattacharjee SK (2014). Studies on the effect of gibberellic acid on growth, flowering and post harvest life of Rosa hybrida cv. Raktagandha. Indian Rose Annals. 11: 567-574.
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5. Glick A, Phllosoph-Hadas S, Vainstein A, Meir A, Tadmor Y, Meir S (2007). Methyl Jasmonate Enhances Color and Carotenoid Content of Yellow Pigmented Cut Rose Flowers. Acta Horticulturae. 755: 243-250. [DOI:10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.755.31]
6. Hasibi P (2007). Physiological study of the effect of cold stress on seedling stage of different rice genotypes. PhD Thesis of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. 145 p.
7. Janowsk B, Jerzy M (2003). Effect of gibberrelic acid on postharvest leaf longevity of Zantedeschia elliottiana. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental pland Research. 11: 69-76
8. Khangoli S (2001). Potential of growth regulators on control of size and flowering of ornamental plants. Proceeding of first applied scientific seminar on flowering and ornamental plants, Mahalat, Iran.
9. Kishan S, Singh KP, Raju DVS (2007). Vegetative growth, flowering and seed characters of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) as influenced by different growth substances during mild off seasons. Journal Ornamentals Horticulture. 10(4): 268-270.
10. Krishnamooorthy V, Madalageri MB (2000). Influence of plant growth regulating on growth and seed yield and oil content in ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Indian Perfumer. 44(4): 255-259.
11. Leshem Y (2014). The molecular and hormonal basis of plant growth regulation. Department of life science. Bar-Ilon University Ramat. Israel. pp: 159.
12. Lester DC, Carter OG, Kelleher FM, Laing DR (2002). The effect of gibberellic acid on apparent photosynthesis and dark respiration of simulated swards of pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research, 23:205-213. [DOI:10.1071/AR9720205]
13. Lichtenthaler HK (1987). Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods of Enzymology 148: 350-380. [DOI:10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1]
14. Majidian N, Naderi R, Khaliqi A, Majidian M (2011). The effect of gibberellin and benzyladenine growth regulators on the production of Shipoori potted cultivar Zantedeschia cultivar. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 25 (4): 361-368.
15. Pawar VA, Naik DM, Katkar PB (2008). Effect of foliar application of growth regulators on growth and yield of gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella). South Indian Horticulture. 53(1-6): 386-388.
16. Salehi Sardoei A, Shahdadneghad M (2014a). Effects of foliar application of gibberellic acid on chlorophyll and carotenoids of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 2(6): 120-127.
17. Salehi Sardoei A (2014b). Gibberellic Acid and Benzyladenine Application increase offsets in Aloe barbadensis. International European Journal of Experimental Biology. 4(1): 646-650.
18. Stephen GT, Ivo R, Camille MS (2005). Gibberellin metabolism and signaling. Vitamins and Hormones, 72: 289-338. [DOI:10.1016/S0083-6729(05)72009-4]
19. Sunitha HM (2006). Effect of plant population, nutrition and growth regulators on plant growth, seed yield and quality of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). M.Sc. (Agri) Thesis, Univ. Agril. Sci., Dharwad, Karnataka (India).
20. Tripathi A, Tripathi N, Shukla SN, Pandey G (2003). Effect of GA, NAA and CCC on growth and flowering of French marigold (Tagetes patula). Journal of Applied Horticulture. 5(2): 112 -113. [DOI:10.37855/jah.2003.v05i02.28]
21. Yaqoubi L. Hatamzadeh A. Bakhshi D. (2013). The effect of gibberellic acid and methyl jasmonate on some morphological and physiological characteristics of two cultivars of Bellis perennis. Proceedings of the 8th Iranian Horticultural Sciences Congress. Bu Ali Sina University. 3096-3100 p.
22. References
23. Arteca RN, Dong CN (1996). Stimulation of photosynthesis by application of phytohormones to the root systems of tomato plants. Photosynthesis Research. 2: 243-249.
24. Bani Nasab B, Rahami M (1998). The effect of the use of gibberellic acid on the growth and development of coriander seeds and Kalkhong. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 29 (1): 65-74.
25. Bhattacharjee SK (2014). Studies on the effect of gibberellic acid on growth, flowering and post harvest life of Rosa hybrida cv. Raktagandha. Indian Rose Annals. 11: 567-574.
26. Ghasemi Ghehsareh M, Kafi K (2011). Scientific and practical floricultural (Volume II). Razavi Publications. 394 p.
27. Glick A, Phllosoph-Hadas S, Vainstein A, Meir A, Tadmor Y, Meir S (2007). Methyl Jasmonate Enhances Color and Carotenoid Content of Yellow Pigmented Cut Rose Flowers. Acta Horticulturae. 755: 243-250. [DOI:10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.755.31]
28. Hasibi P (2007). Physiological study of the effect of cold stress on seedling stage of different rice genotypes. PhD Thesis of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. 145 p.
29. Janowsk B, Jerzy M (2003). Effect of gibberrelic acid on postharvest leaf longevity of Zantedeschia elliottiana. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental pland Research. 11: 69-76
30. Khangoli S (2001). Potential of growth regulators on control of size and flowering of ornamental plants. Proceeding of first applied scientific seminar on flowering and ornamental plants, Mahalat, Iran.
31. Kishan S, Singh KP, Raju DVS (2007). Vegetative growth, flowering and seed characters of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) as influenced by different growth substances during mild off seasons. Journal Ornamentals Horticulture. 10(4): 268-270.
32. Krishnamooorthy V, Madalageri MB (2000). Influence of plant growth regulating on growth and seed yield and oil content in ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Indian Perfumer. 44(4): 255-259.
33. Leshem Y (2014). The molecular and hormonal basis of plant growth regulation. Department of life science. Bar-Ilon University Ramat. Israel. pp: 159.
34. Lester DC, Carter OG, Kelleher FM, Laing DR (2002). The effect of gibberellic acid on apparent photosynthesis and dark respiration of simulated swards of pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research, 23:205-213. [DOI:10.1071/AR9720205]
35. Lichtenthaler HK (1987). Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods of Enzymology 148: 350-380. [DOI:10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1]
36. Majidian N, Naderi R, Khaliqi A, Majidian M (2011). The effect of gibberellin and benzyladenine growth regulators on the production of Shipoori potted cultivar Zantedeschia cultivar. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 25 (4): 361-368.
37. Pawar VA, Naik DM, Katkar PB (2008). Effect of foliar application of growth regulators on growth and yield of gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella). South Indian Horticulture. 53(1-6): 386-388.
38. Salehi Sardoei A, Shahdadneghad M (2014a). Effects of foliar application of gibberellic acid on chlorophyll and carotenoids of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 2(6): 120-127.
39. Salehi Sardoei A (2014b). Gibberellic Acid and Benzyladenine Application increase offsets in Aloe barbadensis. International European Journal of Experimental Biology. 4(1): 646-650.
40. Stephen GT, Ivo R, Camille MS (2005). Gibberellin metabolism and signaling. Vitamins and Hormones, 72: 289-338. [DOI:10.1016/S0083-6729(05)72009-4]
41. Sunitha HM (2006). Effect of plant population, nutrition and growth regulators on plant growth, seed yield and quality of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). M.Sc. (Agri) Thesis, Univ. Agril. Sci., Dharwad, Karnataka (India).
42. Tripathi A, Tripathi N, Shukla SN, Pandey G (2003). Effect of GA, NAA and CCC on growth and flowering of French marigold (Tagetes patula). Journal of Applied Horticulture. 5(2): 112 -113. [DOI:10.37855/jah.2003.v05i02.28]
43. Yaqoubi L. Hatamzadeh A. Bakhshi D. (2013). The effect of gibberellic acid and methyl jasmonate on some morphological and physiological characteristics of two cultivars of Bellis perennis. Proceedings of the 8th Iranian Horticultural Sciences Congress. Bu Ali Sina University. 3096-3100 p.
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salehi sardoei A, shahdadneghad M, Bahmanyar M A. Effects of topping and foliar application of gibberellic acid on some growth and flowering chracteristics of African marigold. FOP. 2020; 5 (2) :99-108
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Volume 5, Issue 2 (8-2020) Back to browse issues page
گل و گیاهان زینتی Flower and Ornamental Plants
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